REMON - Innovations

Floating Car Data (FCD), also known as Probe Data, is by now a state-of-the-art technology. In various cities, FCD systems are running, helping to detect the speeds and locations of the equipped vehicles. Among others, those cities are Berlin, Hamburg, Nuremberg, Munich, Stuttgart, Graz, Vienna, Gothenburg, Stockholm, Beijing, Ningbo, Chengdu, Hefei, Hangzhou, and Shanghai (see also LISTL/DAMMANN 2009; DEMIR et al. 2003). In many cases, the FCD system runs on taxi fleets, but also on bus fleets and parcel service fleets. Starting in the early 2000s, DLR (German Aerospace Center – Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) applied FCD technology in several German cities (SCHÄFER et al. 2003, 2002; KÜHNE 2003; see also STEINAUER et al. 2006; LEDUC 2008: 22f. for examples of use). The majority of traffic information systems based on FCD are running in urban areas, as a small vehicle fleet can already provide the coverage for the entire urban area. Yet, some companies provide traffic information systems on the national level, among others the car manufacturer BMW. Similarly, companies like TomTom and Navteq provide traffic information, combining traffic detection via GPS and mobile communication systems (GSM/3G) as well as data from stationary traffic detection devices (TomTom 2011; LEDUC 2008).

Traffic detection systems relying on FCD approach usually receive the information from driving four-wheel cars. Using GPS technology, the location, time as well as speed of the cars are detected in regular time intervals. The speed of the cars is the indicator for the traffic flow and traffic density on the streets and thus for traffic problems like traffic jams. The relation between speed, traffic flow and traffic density is empirically tested and described in the so-called fundamental diagrams (FGVS 2005).
In contrast to European and North-American cities, motorcycles dominate urban transport in Hanoi. Many South East Asian cities like Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok, or Jakarta, which all have a high share of two-wheelers, are referred as "motorcycle dependent cities" (see BARTER 1999, KHUAT VIET 2006). A challenging task in developing the traffic information system in Hanoi thus is the significant proportion of two-wheelers. The motorbikes are much more flexible and able to drive even if passenger cars are already stopped by traffic congestion. The high agility of the two-wheelers causes a challenge for traffic detection. The REMON project will develop and apply an approach similar to Floating Car Data, the Floating Phone Data (FPD). It is based on phones/smartphones equipped with GPS receivers. As the application of standard FCD is not applicable to the traffic flows in Hanoi, a comprehensive mathematical and statistical analysis has to be accomplished to determine the correlation between speed, traffic flow and traffic density for different street types in Hanoi.